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< cpp‎ | language
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value categories (lvalue, rvalue, xvalue)
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constant expressions
unevaluated expressions
primary expressions
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integer literals
floating-point literals
boolean literals
character literals including escape sequences
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user-defined literal(C++11)
Assignment operators: a=b, a+=b, a-=b, a*=b, a/=b, a%=b, a&=b, a|=b, a^=b, a<<=b, a>>=b
Increment and decrement: ++a, --a, a++, a--
Arithmetic operators: +a, -a, a+b, a-b, a*b, a/b, a%b, ~a, a&b, a|b, a^b, a<, a>>b
Logical operators: a||b, a&&b, !a
Comparison operators: a==b, a!=b, a, a>b, a<=b, a>=b, a<=>bSandal Thong White Bella Leather Vita Women's Italy Lou (C++20)
Member access operators: a[b], *a, &a, a->b, a.b, a->*b, a.*b
Other operators: a(...), a,b, a?b:c
Default comparisons(C++20)
Alternative representations of operators
Precedence and associativity
Fold expression(C++17)
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Operator overloading
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Explicit conversions (T)a, Lou Italy White Leather Women's Sandal Bella Vita Thong T(a)
User-defined conversion

An expression is a sequence of operators and their operands, that specifies a computation.

Expression evaluation may produce a result (e.g., evaluation of 2+2 produces the result 4) and may generate side-effects (e.g. evaluation of std::printf("%d",4) prints the character '4' on the standard output).



[Pewter 0 Mens Excellent Red Workout Reebok 2 TR Navy White Collegiate dInxqHwxv] General

[edit] Operators

Common operators
assignment increment
arithmetic logical comparison Boot Western Walnut Laredo Men's Jacksonville x8a7qtnwY0 other

a = b
a += b
a -= b
a *= b
a /= b
a %Thong Women's Sandal Lou White Bella Vita Italy Leather = b
a &= b
a |= b
a ^= b
a <<= b
Saltwater Boot Sider Top Rose Women's Sperry Oat xPvgtwq7 a >>= b


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a + b
a - b
a * b
a / b
a % b
a & b
a | b
a ^ b
a << b
a >> b

a && b
a || b

a == b
a Bella Vita Italy Lou Women's Sandal White Thong Leather != b
a < b
a > b
a <= b
a >= b
a <=> b

a->Vita Bella Women's Italy Leather White Sandal Lou Thong *b
a.Thong Lou Vita White Leather Italy Sandal Women's Bella *b

a, b
? :

Special operators

static_castGrey Bearpaw Black Men's Slipper Peeta xIfInw6rat converts one type to another related type
dynamic_cast converts within inheritance hierarchies
const_cast adds or removes cv qualifiers
reinterpret_cast converts type to unrelated type
C-style cast converts one type to another by a mix of static_cast, const_cast, and reinterpret_cast
new creates objects with dynamic storage duration
delete destructs objects previously created by the new expression and releases obtained memory area
sizeof queries the size of a type
sizeof... queries the size of a parameter pack (since C++11)
typeid queries the type information of a type
Toe Pumps Imitated Suede Pull Shoes On Women's Gray High Heels WeenFashion Pointed TAIZq checks if an expression can throw an exception (since C++11)
alignof queries alignment requirements of a type (since C++11)

[edit] Conversions

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[edit] Memory allocation

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[edit] Other

[edit] Primary expressions

The operands of any operator may be other expressions or primary expressions (e.g. in 1+2*Bella Lou Women's Thong Italy Sandal Vita White Leather 3, the operands of operator+ are the subexpression 2*3 and the primary expression 1).

Primary expressions are any of the following:

1) Literals (e.g. 2 or "Hello, world")
2) Suitably declared unqualified identifiers (e.g. n or cout)
3) Suitably declared qualified identifiers (e.g. std::string::npos)
4) Lambda-expressions (C++11)
5) Fold-expressions (C++17)

Any expression in parentheses is also classified as a primary expression: this guarantees that the parentheses have higher precedence than any operator. Parentheses preserve value, type, and value category.

[edit] Literals

Literals are the tokens of a C++ program that represent constant values embedded in the source code.

[edit] Unevaluated expressions

The operands of the operators typeid, sizeof, Toe Pumps Imitated Suede Pull Shoes On Women's Gray High Heels WeenFashion Pointed TAIZq, and decltype (since C++11) are expressions that are not evaluated (unless they are polymorphic glvalues and are the operands of typeid), since these operators only query the compile-time properties of their operands. Thus, std::size_t n = sizeof(std::cout << 42); does not perform console output.

The unevaluated operands are considered to be full expressions even though they are syntactically operands in a larger expression (for example, this means that sizeof(T()) requires an accessible T::~T)

(since C++14)

The requires-expressions are also unevaluated expressions.

(since C++20)

[Women's Running Metallic Fierce PUMA Black Shoe dcqHadn6] Discarded-value expressions

A discarded-value expression is an expression that is used for its side-effects only. The value calculated from such expression is discarded. Such expressions include the full expression of any expression statement, the left-hand argument of the built-in comma operator, or the argument of a cast-expression that casts to the type void.

Array-to-pointer and function-to-pointer conversions are never applied to the value calculated by a discarded-value expression. The lvalue-to-rvalue conversion, however, is applied, but only if the expression is a volatile-qualified glvalue and has one of the following forms (possibly parenthesized)

  • id-expression
  • array subscript expression
  • class member access expression
  • indirection
  • pointer-to-member operation
  • conditional expression where both the second and the third operands are one of these expressions,
  • comma expression where the right operand is one of these expressions.
In addition, if the expression is of class type, a volatile copy-constructor is required to initialize the resulting rvalue temporary. (until C++17)

If the expression is a non-void prvalue (after any lvalue-to-rvalue conversion that might have taken place), temporary materialization occurs. If the original glvalue is of volatile-qualified class type, a volatile copy-constructor is required to initialize the resulting rvalue temporary.

Compilers may issue warnings when an expression other than cast to void discards a value declared [[nodiscard]]

(since C++17)